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A Possibility of Prions in Plants

Posted on Aug 31, 2016 in Blog

prionIn the 1960’s, two researchers in London were investigating why diseases like scrapie and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) resisted ionizing radiation. What they hypothesized was that these diseases were caused by proteins, rather than a biological agent. However, it wasn’t until the 1980’s that these hypothetical proteins, dubbed prions, were isolated and purified. Prions are proteins that can fold in multiple structurally distinct ways. These folds can be transferred to other prion proteins, and this propagation results in diseases similar to bacterial infections. In addition to scrapie and CJD (a human disease that causes brain tissue to rapidly decay, leaving the brain with a sponge-like texture), prions are also suspected as the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a.k.a. “mad cow disease”).

Currently, all of the known prion diseases in mammals target either the brain or neural tissue. Since prion proteins are able to transfer their folded state to normal versions of the protein, treatment methods for prion disease would involve denaturing the proteins: un-twisting them back into their natural state so that they are no longer able to induce folding of other proteins. However, a practical method to do this doesn’t currently exist, so prion diseases are untreatable – and always fatal.

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The Science of C. elegans

Posted on Jul 25, 2016 in Blog

C elegansIn 1963, Dr. Sydney Brenner, a South African biologist, went looking for a model organism to advance the study of biological development, specifically targeting the nervous system. What he found was Caenorhabditis elegans, or C. elegans for short. C. elegans is a small, free-living (i.e. non-parasitic) roundworm. Dr. Brenner chose C. elegans to be the model organism since it is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system. The nervous system of every C. elegans specimen contains exactly 302 neurons, and this consistency between individuals makes them perfect for study. Studies with C. elegans have also branched out to include other fields such as embryogenesis, sex determination, and larval development. Research using C. elegans has led to discoveries in areas such as programmed cell death (a.k.a. apoptosis, which is an important process in the study of diseases like Leukemia), RNA interference, nicotine addiction (worms respond to nicotine similarly to the way mammals do), ageing research, and space research including zero gravity effects on development, muscle atrophy, etc.

C. elegans has a lot of characteristics that make it desirable for research in general. The specimens are small; they measure about 1 millimeter in length. They eat bacteria (such as E. coli), so they can be easily grown on agar plates with up to 10,000 worms on a single petri dish. Most adult C. elegans specimens are hermaphroditic, and each hermaphroditic worm can produce 300-350 offspring, so breeding for specific mutations can be done relatively easily. They also have short development times (3 days from egg to adult) and life spans (2-3 weeks), so studying genetic effects across generations is possible over short time periods. C. elegans can also survive while frozen in liquid nitrogen, making long-term storage of specific mutations possible for future studies.

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Light Intensity in Rodent Incubators

Posted on Jun 23, 2016 in Blog

Many rodents are nocturnal. However, even rodents that are active during the day tend to prefer darker areas. Most rats, for example, have adapted to be accustomed to spending daylight hours largely sheltered from light sources. This makes lighting control in habitats used for rodent research an important variable to be considered. However, lighting control encompasses more than just light intensity. Things like the duration of exposure, pigmentation of the animal, age, species, and sex of the animal are just some of the other factors that need to be considered. Additionally, many rodents used in research applications are albino, which makes them more susceptible to light than other varieties. Because of this, albino rodents have been used in establishing baselines for illumination levels.

rodent incubator light coverSo what light levels are appropriate for housing rodents? According to the US National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the light experience of each animal can affect its light sensitivity, but in normal cases light intensity at the cage level should be between 12 and 30 foot candles (130-325 lux). The normal fluorescent bulbs in our Rodent Incubators produce light intensity between 80-100 foot candles (860-1080 lux) at the cage, which is quite strong. A glass door in the incubator (with no timed light control) could allow the room lighting to provide the correct illumination, but we wanted to provide a better option for researchers looking for less intense, and timed, lighting within the chamber. Powers Scientific now offers dimmable light covers on our Rodent Incubators. These light covers are plastic bulb sleeves with graded black striping to block some of the light emitted. The striping changes in density around the cover so that as the covers are rotated around the bulb, more or less of the light is blocked depending on the direction you twist it. With the light covers mounted, light intensity inside the chamber is reduced to 10-40 foot candles (105-430 lux), depending on how the covers are oriented. With these light covers, our chambers are capable of providing low-intensity lighting conditions for many applications.

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Tissue Polarity Experiments in Drosophila and Mice

Posted on May 26, 2016 in Blog

 “Complexity that works is built up out of modules that work perfectly, layered one over the other.”

     – Kevin Kelly

Living creatures are almost incomprehensibly complex. Take the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells creating thousands of different parts. Our mass of interconnected systems, and indeed the complex biological systems of many members of the animal kingdom, have slowly built up over the course of millions of years as life forms have grown in complexity and adapted to become more specialized. One of the reasons that these forms of life have been able to become so elaborate is that their cells are capable of determining their location and orientation within the body. This ability for cells to know where they are in the body leads to an evolutionary advantage: it allows for the creation of elaborate, non-symmetrical systems.

While the details of living organisms have changed massively in the past half-billion years, one thing common to most of them hasn’t changed very much at all: the genetics that control the process of orienting cells in consistent directions within the body. In March 2016, Scientific American ran an article discussing how scientists are experimenting to determine how these genes work. These “polarity genes” originally evolved five hundred million years ago and haven’t changed much in the interim. They cause certain proteins in cells to work a lot like magnets. Within each cell, these proteins push each other apart to opposite ends of the cell. Between the cells, the same proteins that repel each other within a cell experience an attraction, pulling the opposite protein from adjacent cells towards them. The ultimate effect of this is that, locally, the cells become oriented with all the proteins of one type lined up on one side of the cell, and all proteins of the other type lined up on the opposite side. This effectively creates a sort of compass for the cells and allows the establishment of a common directionality.

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Vaccine Storage Options for Pediatricians

Posted on Apr 21, 2016 in Blog

vaccinationOne of the classic images of pediatric medicine in the United States is the image of a physician giving a vaccination shot. Like many other classic images of twentieth-century life in the US, this one is unsurprisingly immortalized in a Norman Rockwell painting. However, over the last few decades, it has become much more difficult for small practices to provide the vaccination services that they have historically been relied upon to give.

The cost to administer vaccines has risen sharply over that time period. In 1986, the cost of the five vaccines recommended for all children from birth to age 18 was $215. In 2014, the cost of those same five vaccines (adjusted for inflation) was $937: more than a four-fold increase! In addition, eight new recommended vaccinations were added in the intervening 28 years, requiring an additional $1,255 of medicine to fully vaccinate a child. Given this large increase in costs, maximizing the effectiveness of each batch of vaccines by minimizing the waste is very valuable, especially to small family-practice doctors and pediatricians. Storing vaccines properly is critical to making sure that the maximum amount of vaccine can be delivered effectively.

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The Zika Virus and Mosquito Research

Posted on Mar 24, 2016 in Blog

Zika virus mosquitoFor thousands of years, humans have struggled against infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitos. Records describing the symptoms of malaria can be traced back to 2700 B.C. in China. Other mosquito-borne diseases, such as yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile virus are a perennial threat to the health and safety of people all over the world.

One mosquito-borne illness that has rapidly gained notoriety recently is the Zika virus. This disease was first documented in monkeys in Uganda in 1947, and then in humans in 1952.  However, recent large outbreaks of the disease in French Polynesia (in 2013) and Brazil (in 2015) have drastically heightened public awareness of the virus. In January, the CDC issued a level 2 alert for travel to Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean due to Zika virus outbreaks, warning travelers to “practice enhanced precautions” and take steps to protect themselves from mosquito bites.

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